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The images displayed here depict examples of the major butterfly subfamilies occurring in Ecuador and principal habitats. For any use other than talks or educational material that is supplied free of charge, permission must be sought from K.R. Willmott or J.P.W. Hall prior to use. Copyright to all images is currently held by K.R. Willmott and J.P.W. Hall.

IMMATURE STAGES
  Ithomiinae

ADULT BUTTERFLIES
  Papilionidae
  Pieridae
  Nymphalidae
  Nymphalinae
  Charaxinae
  Biblidinae
  Limenitidinae
  Danainae
  Ithomiinae
  Heliconiinae
  Morphinae
  Brassolinae
  Satyrinae

HABITATS
  Dry forest
  Moist forest
  Northwest lowland pluvial forest
  West submontane forest (1000-2500m)
  West upper montane forest (>2500m)
  Páramo
  Eastern lowland wet forest
  Eastern foothills
  Eastern submontane (1000-2500m)
  Eastern upper montane (>2500m)
  Highland valleys

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REPRINTS

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Listed here are all papers by us relevant to the taxonomy and ecology of Ecuadorian butterflies. Following this is a list of additional papers of particular relevance by other authors, including papers on butterfly taxonomy and biology, and conservation issues in Ecuador. Please note that the latter list is not comprehensive, and will be continually updated with both old and new references.

BY JASON HALL AND KEITH WILLMOTT:

XXX. Gompert, Z., Willmott, K. R., Elias, M. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use and the maintenance of Müllerian mimicry diversity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, in review.

XXX. Willmott, K. R., Elias, M., Sourakov, A. Two possible caterpillar mimicry complexes in neotropical danaine butterflies (Nymphalidae, Danainae: Danaini, Ithomiini). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, in press.

XXX. Pyrcz, T., Greeney, H. F., Willmott, K. R., Wojtusiak, J. A taxonomic revision of the genus Daedalma Hewitson with the descriptions of nineteen new taxa and the immature stages of two species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Zootaxa, in press.

2010. Mullen, S. P., Savage, W., and K. R. Willmott Rapid diversification and not clade age explains high diversity in neotropical Adelpha butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B doi:10.1098/rspb.2010.2140

2010. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Description of a new Lucillella species (Riodinidae: Symmachiini) discovered in the eastern Andes of Ecuador using the single rope canopy access technique. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 64: 139-146. Download high (12 Mb) or low (4.7 Mb) resolution reprint [PDF].

2010. Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. A new species of Dynamine Hübner, [1819] from northwestern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Biblidinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 20: 23-27. Download reprint [PDF]

2010. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott.b> A new species of Alesa (Riodinidae: Eurybiini) from eastern Ecuador. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 20: 19-22.

2010. de-Silva, D. L., Day, J. J., Elias, M., Willmott, K. R., Whinnett, A., and J. Mallet. Molecular phylogenetics of the neotropical butterfly subtribe Oleriina (Nymphalidae: Danainae: Ithomiini). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55:1032-1041. Download reprint [PDF]

2009. Elias, M., Gompert, Z., Jiggins, C., and K. R. Willmott. Phylogenetic community ecology needs to take positive interactions into account: Insights from colourful butterflies. Communicative & Integrative Biology 2(2): in press [Article addendum]

2009. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Two new species of Euselasia (Riodinidae: Euselasiinae) from western Ecuador. Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 19(1): 52-55. Download reprint [PDF]

2009. Elias, M., Joron, M., Willmott, K. R., Kaiser, V., Silva-Brandão, K. L., Freitas, A. V. L., Arias, C. F., Gomez Piñeres, L. M., Uribe, S., and C. Jiggins. Out of the Andes: patterns of diversification in clearwing butterflies. Molecular Ecology, 18: 1716-1729. Download page proofs [PDF]

2009. Willmott, K. R., Freitas, A. V. L., Hall, J. P. W., Silva-Brandão, K. L., Paluch, M. A new species of Actinote Hübner from the eastern Andes of Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 111(1): 47-56. Download reprint [PDF] - NOTE: figures in published version are monochrome

2008. Willmott, K. R., Vitale, F. Taxonomic notes on Napeogenes (Lepidoptera: Ithomiinae) from Ecuador and Colombia, with the description of ten new subspecies. Genus, 19(3): 585-609. Download reprint [PDF]

2008. Willmott, K. R., Lamas, G. A revision of the genus Megoleria (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae). Tropical Lepidoptera Research, 18(1): 46-59.Download reprint [PDF]

2007. Elias, M., Hill, R., Willmott, K. R., Dasmahapatra, K., Brower, A., Mallet, J., Jiggins, C. Limited performance of DNA barcoding in a diverse community of tropical butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 274: 2881-2889.Download reprint [PDF]

2007. Brehm, G., Hartmann, T., and K. R. Willmott. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and pharmacophagous Lepidoptera visitors of Prestonia amabilis (Apocynaceae) in a montane rain forest in Ecuador. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 94(2): 463-473.Download reprint [PDF]

2007. Willmott, K. R., Lamas, G. A revision of Pachacutia, a new genus of rare Andean ithomiine butterflies (Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae), with the description of two new species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 100: 449-469.

2007. Hall, J. P. W., Willmott, K.R. Four new species of Symmachiini from Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 16(1-2): 1-5.Download reprint [PDF]

2007. Hall, J. P. W. A phylogenetic revision of the new riodinid butterfly genus Minstrellus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 100: 773-

2007. Hall, J. P. W., Harvey, D. J. Three new species in the riodinid tribe Symmachiini from Panama and Colombia (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 16: 7-10.

2007. Hall, J. P. W. Two new genera in the Nymphidiina (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Nymphidiini). Zootaxa, 1415: 35-42.

2007. Hall, J. P. W., Lamas, G. Four new symmachiine taxa from the eastern Andes of Peru and Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Zootaxa, 1533: 41-52.

2006. Pyrcz, T. W., Willmott, K. R., Hall, J. P. W., and A. L. Viloria. A review of the genus Manerebia Staudinger (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) in the northern Andes. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 39: 37-79.Download reprint [PDF]

2006. Jiggins, C. D., Mallarino, R., Willmott, K. R., and E. Bermingham. Phylogenetic evidence for speciation caused by ecological adaptation in neotropical Ithomia butterflies (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae). Evolution, 60: 1454-1466.Download reprint [PDF]

2006. Willmott, K. R., and A. V. L. Freitas. Higher-level phylogeny of the Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): classification, patterns of larval hostplant colonisation and diversification. Cladistics, 22: 297-368.

2006. Willmott, K. R., and G. Lamas. A phylogenetic reassessment of Hyalenna Forbes and Dircenna Doubleday, with a revision of Hyalenna (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae). Systematic Entomology, 31(3): 419-468. Download reprint [PDF]

2006. Brower, A. V. Z., Freitas, A. V. L., Lee, M.-M., Silva Brandão, K. L., Whinnett, A., and K. R. Willmott. Phylogenetic relationships among the Ithomiini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) inferred from one mitochondrial and two nuclear gene regions. Systematic Entomology, 31: 288-301. Download reprint [PDF]

2005. Hall, J. P. W. A Phylogenetic Revision of the Napaeina (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Mesosemiini). Entomological Society of Washington, Washington, DC. 232 pp.

2005. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. A new species of Paiwarria (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini) from western Ecuador. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 107(4): 960-967.

2005. Hall, J. P. W. Montane speciation patterns in Ithomiola butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): are they consistently moving up in the World? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 272: 2457-2466. Download reprint [PDF]

2005. Mallarino, R., Bermingham, E., Willmott, K. R., Whinnett, A., and C. D. Jiggins. Molecular systematics of the butterfly genus Ithomia (Lepidoptera: Ithomiinae): a composite phylogenetic hypothesis based on seven genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 34(3): 625-644. Download reprint [PDF]

2005. Hall, J. P. W., K. R. Willmott and R. C. Busby. Five new Penaincisalia species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini) from the Andes of southern Ecuador and northern Peru. Zootaxa, 797: 1-20. Download reprint [PDF]

2005. Hall, J. P. W. A review of the Metacharis syloes group (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), with the description of two new west Andean species. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 107(1): 200-208. Download reprint [PDF]

2004a. Willmott, K. R., and J. Mallet. Correlations between adult mimicry and larval hostplants in ithomiine butterflies. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (Suppl.) 271: S266-S269. Download reprint [PDF]

2004b. Hall, J. P. W. The Genus Adelpha: its Systematics, Biology and Biogeography (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidini). by Keith R. Willmott. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 106(3): 728-730. [book review] Download reprint [PDF]

2004c. Hall, J. P. W., D. J. Harvey, and D. H. Janzen. Life history of Calydna sturnula with a review of larval and pupal balloon setae in the Riodinidae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97(2): 310-321. Download reprint [PDF]

2004d. Hall, J. P. W., R. K. Robbins, and D. J. Harvey. Extinction and biogeography in the Caribbean: new evidence from a fossil riodinid butterfly in Dominican amber. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271(1541): 797-801. Download reprint [PDF]

2004e. Hall, J. P. W., and G. Lamas. A new cloud forest species of Calydna (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Peru, with a revised phylogeny of the C. hiria group. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 106(4): 733-738. Download reprint [PDF]

2004f. Willmott, K. R., and Lamas, G. A new species of Tithorea (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae) from the Chocó region of northwestern South America and Panama. J. New York Ent. Soc., 112(1): 1-17. Download reprint [PDF]

2004g. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. Five new riodinid species from the Napo region of Ecuador and Peru (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera,12(1-2): 35-41. Download reprint [PDF]

2004h. Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. Taxonomic notes on the genus Zaretis, with the description of a new species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Charaxinae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 12(1-2): 25-38. Download reprint [PDF]

2003a. Hall, J. P. W. Phylogenetic reassessment of the five forewing radial-veined tribes of the Riodininae (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Systematic Entomology, 28(1): 23-37. Download reprint [PDF]

2003b. Hall, J. P. W., and C. J. Callaghan. A revision of the new riodinid butterfly genus Pseudotinea (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Journal of Natural History, 37(7): 821-837. Download reprint [PDF]

2003c. Willmott, K. R. Cladistic analysis of the neotropical butterfly genus Adelpha (Nymphalidae: Limenitidini), with comments on the subtribal classification of the tribe Limenitidini. Systematic Entomology, 28: 1-43. Download reprint [PDF]

2003d. Willmott, K. R. The Genus Adelpha: its Systematics, Biology and Biogeography (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidini). Gainesville, Scientific Publishers. viii + 322 pp. Download pre-print [PDF]

2002a. Hall, J. P. W. A review of the new riodinid butterfly genus Panaropsis (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Symmachiini). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 104(1): 63-72. Download reprint [PDF]

2002b. Hall, J. P. W. A review of Chalodeta with a revision of the Chalodeta chaonitis group (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 104(2): 376-389. Download reprint [PDF]

2002c. Hall, J. P. W. Phylogeny of the riodinid butterfly subtribe Theopeina (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Nymphidiini). Systematic Entomology, 27(2): 139-168. Download reprint [PDF]

2002d. Hall, J. P. W. A phylogenetic revision of Calydna and relatives (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Insect Systematics and Evolution, 33(2): 185-237. Download reprint [PDF]

2002e. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. A survey of androconial organs in the Riodinidae (Lepidoptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 136: 171-197. Download reprint [PDF]

2002f. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. The phylogeography of Amazonia revisited: new evidence from riodinid butterflies. Evolution, 56(7): 1489-1497. Download reprint [PDF]

2002g. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. A phylogenetic review of Charis and Calephelis (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 95(4): 407-421. Download reprint [PDF]

2002h. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. A revision of the Neotropical butterfly genus Seco Hall and Harvey (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 104(4): 941-947. Download reprint [PDF]

2002i. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. Basal subtribes of the Nymphidiini (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae): phylogeny and myrmecophily. Cladistics, 18(6): 539-569.

2002j. Harvey, D. J., and J. P. W. Hall. Phylogenetic revision of the Charis cleonus complex (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Systematic Entomology, 27(3): 265-300. Download reprint [PDF]

2001a. Hall, J. P. W. A revision of the new riodinid butterfly genus Dachetola (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Riodinini). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 109(2): 183-195. Download reprint [PDF]

2001b. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. A phylogenetic analysis of the Neotropical riodinid butterfly genera Juditha, Lemonias, Thisbe, and Uraneis, with a revision of Juditha (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Nymphidiini). Systematic Entomology, 26(4): 453-490. Download reprint [PDF]

2001c. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. Phylogenetic revision of the Charis gynaea group (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) with comments on historical relationships among Neotropical areas of endemism. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 94(5): 631-647. Download reprint [PDF]

2001d. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. A reassessment of Calociasma with the description of a new genus and a new species (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Nymphidiini). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 109(2): 196-205. Download reprint [PDF]

2001e. Hall, J. P. W., and G. Lamas. Five new riodinid species from northwestern dry forest and northeastern Andean cloud forest habitats in Peru (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Revista Peruana Entomologia, 42: 9-19. Download reprint [PDF]

2001f. Willmott, K.R., J. P. W. Hall, and G. Lamas. Systematics of Hypanartia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae), with a test for geographical speciation mechanisms in the Andes. Systematic Entomology, 26: 369-399. Download reprint [PDF]

2001g. Willmott, K. R., L. M. Constantino, and J. P. W. Hall. A review of Colobura (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) with comments on larval and adult ecology and description of a sibling species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 94(2): 185-196. Download reprint [PDF]

2001h. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Ecuador. Out on a limb. National Geographic Magazine (Update from the field), 199(2): 86. Download reprint [PDF]

2001i. Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. Winged gems of Ecuador. Biodiversity paradise. National Geographic Magazine (Geographica) 199(5): xxviii. Download reprint [PDF]

2000a. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Patterns of feeding behaviour in adult male riodinid butterflies and their relationship to morphology and ecology. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 69: 1-23. Download reprint [PDF]

2000b. Hall, J. P. W. Two new genera in the Neotropical riodinid tribe Nymphidiini (Riodinidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 54(2): 41-46. Download reprint [PDF]

1999a. Hall, J. P. W. A Revision of the Genus Theope: its Systematics and Biology (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Nymphidiini). Scientific Publishers, Gainesville. vii + 127pp.

1999b. Hall, J. P. W., and J. B. Heppner. Lemoniadini, a corrected tribal name in the Riodininae (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 10(1): 30.Download reprint [PDF]

1999c. Pyrcz, T., K. R. Willmott, and J. P. W. Hall. Contribution to the knowledge of Ecuadorian Pronophilini. Part III. Three new species and five new subspecies of Lymanopoda (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Genus, 10(3): 497-522. Download reprint [PDF - 1] [PDF - 2]

1999d. Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. Taxonomic notes on Ecuadorian Adelpha with the description of two new species and seven new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitidinae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 10(1): 1-17. Download reprint [PDF - 1] [PDF - 2]

1998a. Hall, J. P. W. A review of the genus Sarota (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), pp. 1-21. In: J. P. W. Hall (ed.) A Contribution to Riodinid Systematics. Tropical Lepidoptera, 9(2), Supplement 1. Download reprint [PDF - 1] [PDF - 2]

1998b. Hall, J. P. W. Six new species in the "foliorum group" of Theope (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Lambillionea, 98(4): 562-573. Download reprint [PDF]

1998c. Hall, J. P. W., and D. J. Harvey. A new genus of riodinid, with a new species from Panama (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Nymphidiini), pp. 36-41. In: J. P. W. Hall (ed.) A Contribution to Riodinid Systematics. Tropical Lepidoptera, 9(2), Supplement 1. Download reprint [PDF]

1998d. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Four new riodinid species from eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Lambillionea, 98: 325-334. ownload reprint [PDF]

1998e. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Nine new species and one new subspecies of Euselasia from Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, Suppl. 1, 9(2): 27-35. Download reprint [PDF]

1998f. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Three new species of Riodinini from the cloud forests of Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, Suppl. 1, 9(2): 22-26. Download reprint [PDF]

1996a. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. The genus Theope: four new species and a new subspecies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 7(1): 63-67. Download reprint [PDF]

1996b. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Notes on the genus Argyrogrammana Part II, with the description of a new species. Tropical Lepidoptera, 7(1): 71-80. Download reprint [PDF]

1996c. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Systematics of the riodinid tribe Symmachiini, with the description of a new genus and five new species from Ecuador, Venezuela and Brazil (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Lambillionea, 96: 637-660. Download reprint [PDF]

1996d. Torres, R., J. P. W. Hall, K. R. Willmott, and K. Johnson. A new genus of brilliantly colored elfin butterflies from the high Andes (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 7(1): 81-86. Download reprint [PDF]

1995a. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Two new species of Mesene from western Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 6(2): 110-112. Download reprint [PDF]

1995b. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Five new species and a new genus of riodinid from the cloud forests of eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 6(2): 131-135. Download reprint [PDF]

1995c. Hall, J. P. W., and K. R. Willmott. Notes on the genus Argyrogrammana, with descriptions of five new species (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 6(2): 136-143. Download reprint [PDF]

1995d. Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. Two new species of satyrines from Ecuador (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 6(2): 103-105. Download reprint [PDF]

1995e. Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. Two new species of Adelpha from eastern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Tropical Lepidoptera, 6(2): 106-109. Download reprint [PDF]

1994. Willmott, K. R., and J. P. W. Hall. Four new species of Riodinidae (Lepidoptera) from Western Ecuador. Tropical Lepidoptera, 5(2): 87-91. Download reprint [PDF]

 

BY OTHER AUTHORS:

Butterfly taxonomy and biology:

Attal, S., and A. Crosson du Cormier. 1996. The Genus Perisama. Lepidoptera Nymphalidae. Vennette, Sciences Nat. 149 pp.

1997. Papillons néotropicaux nouveaux des genres Perisama et Epiphile (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 102(3): 287-291.

Bálint, Z., and K. Johnson
. 1995. Description of a new Madeleinea (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) species from Ecuador. Acta Zool. Acad. Scient. Hungaricae, 41(1): 25-34.

Bálint, Z. and J. Wojtusiak. 2003. Notes on Ecuadorian and Peruvian species of the genus Thecloxurina Johnson, 1992 (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Eumaeini), with descriptions of three new species. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 104B: 363-386.

Beccaloni, G. W. 1997a. Ecology, natural history and behaviour of ithomiine butterflies and their mimics in Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae). Trop. Lepid., 8: 103-124.

1997b. Vertical stratification of ithomiine butterfly (Nymphalidae: Ithomiinae) mimicry complexes: the relationship between adult flight height and larval hostplant height. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 62: 313-341.

Blandin, P., and H. Descimon. 1971. Contribution à la connaissance des lépidoptères de l'Equateur. Le genre Morpho (Nymphalidae). Alexanor, 6(8): 371-380.

1975. Contribution à la connaissance des lépidoptères de l'Equateur. Les Brassolinae (Nymphalidae). Annales Soc. Ent. France, 11(1): 3-28.

1977. Contribution à la connaissance des lépidoptères de l'Equateur. Nouvelles données sur les Brassolinae (Nymphalidae) de l'Occidente. Annales Soc. Ent. France, 13(1): 75-88.

Bollino, M., P. Boyer, and F. Vitale. 2003. More notes on some Catasticta females from Ecuador (South America). (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Lambillionea, 103(2)(1): 195-196.

Bollino, M., Greeney, H., and F. Vitale. 2002. On some hitherto unknown females of the genus Catasticta (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) from Ecuador (South America). Lambillionea, 102(3): 267-272.

Bollino, M., and G. Onore. 2001. Mariposas del Ecuador. Vol. 10 A. Papilionidae. Quito, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. 171 pp.

Bollino, M., and F. Vitale. 1999a. Brief notes on some Papilionidae from Ecuador (South America). Lambillionea, 99(2)(2): 255-256.

1999b. Taxonomical notes on Protesilaus earis (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) bona species and illustration of the female. Lambillionea, 99(3)(1): 322-326.

2000. On the early stages of Parides phalaecus (Hewitson, 1869) from southern Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Lambillionea, 100(1)(2): 120-122.

2002. News on some Pieridae from Ecuador (South America) (Lepidoptera). Lambillionea, 102(1): 82-84.

2004. Notes on Catasticta thomasorum Jas. and C. rosea J. & R. from Ecuador (S. Am.) with description of a new subspecies of C. thomasorum (Lep. Pieridae). Lambillionea, 104(1)(1): 81-85.

Brabant, R.
1999. A propos de Catasticta ludovici Eitschberger & Racheli, 1998, de forêts pluviales equatoriennes (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Lambillionea, 1999(2): 219-220.

Brown, F. M.
1941a. Notes on Ecuadorian butterflies - I. Steroma, Pseudosteroma and Steremnia (Satridae [sic], Rhop.). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 34(2): 432-436.

1941b. A gazetteer of entomological stations in Ecuador. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 34(4): 809-851.

1942. Notes on Ecuadorian butterflies. II. Papilio. J. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 50(2): 123-134.

1943a. Notes on Ecuadorian butterflies, V. J. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 50(4): 309-333.

1943b. Notes on Ecuadorian butterflies. III. The genus Lymanopoda Westwood (Satyridae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 36(1): 87-102.

1944. Notes on Ecuadorian butterflies. IV. The genus Penrosada, new (Lepidoptera, Satyridae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., 37(2): 255-260.

Descimon, H. 1995. Un nouveau Perisama de l'Equateur. Lambillionea, 95(1)(1): 18-19.

Descimon, H., and J. Mast. 1971. Contribution a la connaisance des lépidoptères de l'Equateur: Le genre Heliconius Latreille (Nymphalidae). Alexanor, 7(2): 69-79.

DeVries, P. J., R. Lande, and D. Murray
. 1999. Associations of co-mimetic ithomiine butterflies on small spatial and temporal scales in a neotropical rainforest. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 67: 73-85.

DeVries, P. J., I. A. Chacón, and D. Murray. 1994. Towards a better understanding of host use and biodiversity in riodinid butterflies (Lepidoptera). J. Res. Lepid., 31: 103-126.

DeVries, P. J., D. Murray, and R. Lande. 1997. Species diversity in vertical, horizontal, and temporal dimensions of a fruit-feeding butterfly community in an Ecuadorian rainforest. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 62: 313-341.

DeVries, P. J., T. R. Walla, and H. F. Greeney. 1999. Species diversity in spatial and temporal dimensions of fruit-feeding butterflies from two Ecuadorian rainforests. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 68: 333-353.

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1895. Lépidoptères de Loja et environs. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., 39(2): 105-118.

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1960. A monograph of the Ithomiidae (Lepidoptera). Part II. The tribe Melinaeini Clark. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc., 86(2): 109-171.

1967. A monograph of the Ithomiidae (Lepidoptera). Part III. The tribe Mechanitini Fox. Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc., 22: 1-190.

Fox, R. M. and H. G. Real
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Godman, F. D., and O. Salvin
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Haensch, R.
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1905. Neue südamerikanische ithomiinae meiner sammlung. Berl. Ent. Zeit., 50(1/2): 142-182.

Hewitson, W. C.
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1870a. Remarks on and descriptions of new species of butterflies collected by Mr. Buckley in Ecuador. London, John Van Voorst. 4: 49-79 + [2]

1870b. Descriptions of twenty-two new species of Equatorial Lepidoptera. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1870(2): 153-163. 1877. Equatorial Lepidoptera Collected by Mr. Buckley. London, John Van Voorst. 5: 81-96.

Jasinski, A
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1998a. Description of a new species of Catasticta from Ecuador (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Genus, 9(3): 399-404.

1998b. Description of a new species of Hypanartia from southern Ecuador and northern Peru (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Genus, 9(3): 405-410.

Jenkins, D. W.
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1990. Neotropical Nymphalidae VIII. Revision of Eunica. Bull. Allyn Mus., 131: 1-177.

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1992. Genera and species of the Neotropical "elfin"-like hairstreak butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae). Reports of the Museum of Natural History, University of Wisconsin (Stevens Point) 22(1-2): 1-279.

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1997b. Zwei neue Heliconiinae aus dem Oriente Ecuadors (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Ent. Zeit., 107(11): 482-487.

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Pelz, V.
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Conservation:

Dodson, C. H., and A. H. Gentry
. 1991. Biological extinction in western Ecuador. Ann Miss. Bot. Gard., 78: 273-295.

Ecociencia
. 1994. Parques Nacionales y otras areas protegidas del Ecuador: una esperanza para el futuro. Ecociencia, Quito. 31 pp.

Best, B. J. (Ed.)
. 1992. The threatened forests of south-west Ecuador. Leeds, Biosphere Publications.

Best, B. J., and M. Kessler
. 1995. Biodiversity and conservation of Tumbesian Ecuador and Peru. Cambridge, BirdLife.

Cabarle, B. J., M. Crespi, C. H. Dodson, C. C. Luzuriaga, D. Rose, and J. N. Shores
. 1989. An Assessment of Biological Diversity and Tropical Forests for Ecuador. Washington, Center for International Development and Environment. 172 pp.

INEFAN
. 1998. Ecuador. Informe Interino a la Secretaria del Convenio de Diversidad Biológica, sobre la Aplicación del Articulo 6. Quito, INEFAN.

Parker, T. A., and J. L. Carr (Eds.)
. 1992. Status of Forest Remnants in the Cordillera de la Costa and Adjacent Areas of Southwestern Ecuador. RAP Working Papers 2. Washington, Conservation International. 172 pp.

Schulenberg, T. S., and K. Awbrey (Eds.)
. 1997. The Cordillera del Condor Region of Ecuador and Peru: A Biological Assessment. RAP Working Papers 7. Washington, Conservation International. 231 pp.

Suaréz, L.
1993. La conservación de la biodiversidad biológica en el Ecuador: prioridades de investigación. In: Mena, P. A., and L. Suaréz (Eds.), La Investigación para la Conservación de la Diversidad Biológica en el Ecuador, pp. 333-340. Quito, Ecociencia.

 

DNA MATERIAL

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Material of a number of species, stored in alcohol in the field or as dried, papered specimens, is available that is suitable for molecular sequencing. Researchers wishing to obtain material of particular species or groups should contact us.